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Reginald Aubrey Fessenden (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932) was a Canadian-born inventor, who did a majority of his work in the United States and also claimed U.S. citizenship through his American-born father. During his life he received hundreds of patents in various fields, most notably ones related to radio and sonar.
The Canadian engineer Reginald Fessenden, while working for the Submarine Signal Company in Boston, built an experimental system beginning in 1912, a system later tested in Boston Harbor, and finally in 1914 from the U.S. Revenue (now Coast Guard) Cutter Miami on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland Canada. In that test, Fessenden demonstrated depth sounding, underwater communications (Morse code) and echo ranging (detecting an iceberg at 2 miles (3 km) range). The so-called Fessenden oscillator, at about 500 Hz frequency, was unable to determine the bearing of the berg due to the 3-metre wavelength and the small dimension of the transducer's radiating face (less than 1 metre in diameter). The ten Montreal-built British H-class submarines launched in 1915 were equipped with a Fessenden oscillator.