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5 years ago

Extreme engineering: Rolling Monsters - The Most Extreme Trucks in The World

Gtech
Haul trucks are off-highway, rigid dump trucks specifically engineered for use in high-production mining and heavy-duty construction environments. Most haul trucks have a two-axle design, but two very well known models from the 1970s, the 350T Terex Titan and 235T Wabco 3200/B, had three axles. Haul truck capacities range from 40 short tons (36 t) to 496 short tons (450 t). Large quarry-sized trucks range from 40 to 100 tons. A good example of this is the Caterpillar 775 (rated at 70 short tons (64 t)). Quarry operations are typically smaller than, say, a gold/copper mine, and require smaller trucks. The largest, highest-payload-capacity haul trucks are referred to as ultra class trucks. The ultra class includes all haul trucks with a payload capacity of 300 short tons (272 t) or greater. As of October 2013, the BelAZ 75710 has the highest payload capacity, 450 metric tons.
A truck (United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and Pakistan; also called a lorry in the United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa, Malaysia, Singapore, and India) is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration; smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suction excavators. Modern trucks are largely powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t (7,700 lb) are known as light commercial vehicles, and those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s. The roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, and 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries. In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. Later that year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year later, in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing, also built their own versions. The first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era mostly used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb (1.5 to 2 t). In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, and 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the previously common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, and 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, and electric lighting followed. The first modern semi-trailer trucks also appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market. Although it had been invented in 1890, the diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, it took much longer for diesel engines to be accepted: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s.

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