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The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. Due to certain muscle spasms in the eye, the pupil can resemble a tadpole, which consists of a circular body, no arms or legs, and a tail.
When the pupil takes on the shape of a tadpole, the condition is called Tadpole Pupil. Tadpole pupil, also known as episodic segmental iris mydriasis, is an ocular condition where the muscles of the iris begin to spasm causing the elongation, or lengthening, of parts of the iris. These spasms can affect any segment, or portion, of the iris and involve the iris dilator muscle. Contractions of the iris dilator muscle, a smooth muscle of the eye running radially in the iris, can cause irregular distortion of the pupil, thus making the pupil look tadpole shaped and giving this condition its name. Episodic segmental iris mydriasis was first described and termed “tadpole pupil” in 1912 by HS Thompson