Science Fiction; H.G.Wells

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Jean-michel Pelet
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Herbert George "H. G." Wells (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946] was an English writer, now best known for his work in the science fiction genre. He was also a prolific writer in many other genres, including contemporary novels, history, politics and social commentary, even writing textbooks and rules for war games. Together with Jules Verne and Hugo Gernsback, Wells has been referred to as "The Father of Science Fiction". His most notable science fiction works include The War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, The Invisible Man and The Island of Doctor Moreau.
Social class was a theme in Wells's The Time Machine in which the Time Traveller speaks of the future world, with its two races, as having evolved from the gradual widening of the present (19th century) merely temporary and social difference between the Capitalist and the Labourer ... Even now, does not an East-end worker live in such artificial conditions as practically to be cut off from the natural surface of the earth? Again, the exclusive tendency of richer people ... is already leading to the closing, in their interest, of considerable portions of the surface of the land. About London, for instance, perhaps half the prettier country is shut in against intrusion
His most consistent political ideal was the World State. He stated in his autobiography that from 1900 onward he considered a World State inevitable. He envisioned the state to be a planned society that would advance science, end nationalism, and allow people to progress by merit rather than birth. In 1932, he told Young Liberals at the University of Oxford that progressive leaders must become liberal fascists or enlightened Nazis in order to implement their ideas.
Il fut un auteur très prolifique qui écrivit aussi bien des romans réalistes que de la science-fiction, comme des essais sur l'histoire de l'humanité ou l'évolution future de la société. Herbert George Wells fut un socialiste convaincu. Après 1900, ses œuvres se firent de plus en plus politiques et didactiques.
Dès les débuts de sa carrière, Wells cherchait une meilleure manière d'organiser la société, écrivant de nombreuses utopies. Ses romans commençaient généralement par la description d'un monde courant à la catastrophe jusqu'à ce que la population mondiale accède à un nouveau mode de vie : soit grâce à un mystérieux gaz libéré par une comète et qui rendait les humains plus rationnels (In the Days of the Comet), soit grâce à un conseil scientifique s'emparant du pouvoir (The Shape of Things to Come (1933)), adapté plus tard pour le film d'Alexander Korda, Things to Come, daté de 1936. Wells fit également la description d'une reconstruction sociale d'après-guerre par l'avènement de dictateurs fascistes dans The Autocracy of Mr Parham (1930) et The Holy Terror (1939).
Wells questionna l'essence même de l'humanité en opposant les idées de nature et de culture. Toutes ses utopies ne se terminaient pas forcément de manière heureuse.

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