The Syrian military's daily bombardment of Turkmen villages in the western mountains is forcing more and more people to flee their homes in search of refuge.
Turkmen elders say the government offered them federal control of the region if they stayed loyal to Damascus.
The Turkmen refused and now find themselves under attack.
Neighbouring Turkey says it cannot cope with the increasing number of refugees coming across its border.
Al Jazeera's Sue Turton has this exclusive report from the western mountains.