Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites and is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly. Leishmaniasis has been categorized by the World Health Organization as a «re-emerging and uncontrolled disease». The most severe form of Leishmaniasis is fatal if untreated. The European Commission granted a research project named RAPSODI, which goal is to develop a vaccine to protect population. RAPSODI also develops diagnostic assays that should allow the categorization of patients (susceptible or resistant to infection, vaccinated, naïve...). The project is built upon a long-lasting public-private partnership between Virbac and IRD. The consortium also includes teams from endemic areas, such as Spain, Tunisia, India and Peru.