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The middle passage subjected enslaved Africans to an unimaginable ordeal. Between Africa, the trans-Atlantic voyage, sale in the Americas and the 2 year "seasoning" period of adjustment in the Western Hemisphere, an estimated 35 to 80 percent of Africans who left the continent perished. To be sure, however, many survived. How did they survive? They left Africa with a set of survival strategies based on life in West Africa, but how were African modes of survival useful in a completely new setting some 2000 miles away? In this episode, we look at some of the elements of African culture in the western hemisphere and healing traditions that helped Africans to survive the ordeal of enslavement.