LATINO GANGS IN THE US
Some of the Latino gangs go back to the time of the Alamo, having been started as loose associations of immigrants who felt that after the annexation of Texas, they did not belong in the U.S. due to prejudice, and due to the fact they had suddenly become U.S. citizens and could not cross into Mexico. Over time, these "clubs" became the families for many immigrants and illegals crossing into the U.S.
A criminal element asserted itself rather early on, and thus today's Latino Gangs are notorious for major crimes in the cities in which they prey, forcing most police departments to establish major gang units. Most of these gang units are only fairly effective, since face a local populace that serves to shelter and support their racial "brothers", as well as liberal activists who focus on the plight of the poor and the innocents in those racial societies. More on that later.
The links between the criminals and the gangs are of paramount interest. The gang members, acting as a criminal enterprise, will invariably windup in a prison cell. Thus several of the more notorious street gangs actually had their start in prisons and today maintain operations in prison as prison gangs.
For example, the Norteños were formed in Folsom prison in California in 1968. The prison gang was essentially a group of criminals serving time in that institution, comprised of Latinos from northern California (defined as north of Bakersfield, California). The gang members tattooed themselves with the number 14 (N is the fourteenth letter of the alphabet) or "Norte" (North in Spanish), Nuetstra (for Nuestra Famila - the Northern Family). And of course, this led to rivals in prison from southern California (Sureños).
Today, nearly every major Latino gang has a prison "chapter" and manages to communicate as if the incarcerated were simply off on holiday.