In Syria children are the greatest victims of the war.
A new report from the UN reveals a catalogue of abuse.
It says the government has tortured children as young as 11 years old.
Children are also being used as human shields, the report found.
It illustrated the example of government forces threatened to kill at least eight children from a town in Idlib in 2011, unless the rebels surrendered.
The report discovered child soldiers being used, mainly by opposition forces.
Some rebel groups are reportedly recruiting both in Syria and in refugee camps in neighbouring countries.
Al Jazeera's Omar Al Saleh reports.